Most of us must already be aware of the famous Pac-Man grid game. In this article we will look into a type of Markov decision process that is used to make our Pac-Man intelligent. Such that it takes decision by its own to maximise the win rate.

Markov Decision Process

Markov Decision Process (MDP) is a sequential decision process in a fully observable but stochastic environment with a markovian transition model and rewards for each state in the given environment. It consists a set of states, a set of actions available, a transition model and a reward function. …


In this article we will look at what a genetic algorithm is and how a Binary Genetic Algorithm works. We will walk through an example to understand the details.

Before we dive deep into how Binary Genetic Algorithm (BGA) works, we will first look into what it is used for. As the name suggests, Genetic Algorithms use the concept of genes from biology and are used to help optimise a problem that is formulated as an objective function. They can be used in optimising complex engineering problems in thermodynamics to optimising error rate in Neural Networks.

A function f(x) will…


This document will explore and describe the basic procedure for Aperiodic CSI reporting in NR-5G. We shall discuss how a NR UE is configured for CSI reporting and how the resources to measure and report are selected. We will also discuss a working example. We shall not discuss Type-1 and Type-2 spatial information feedback and CSI ports in this document.

In NR, CSI consists of following indicators/ reports:

Channel Quality Indicator (CQI)
Precoding Matrix Indicator (PMI)
CSI-RS Resource Indicator (CRI)
Strongest layer Indicator (SLI)
Rank Indicator (RI)
L1-RSRP

There are 3 types of CSI reporting:

Periodic
Semi-persistent
Aperiodic

The framework…


In this document we will explore the basics of NR-5G PUSCH resource allocation. In NR-5G, PUSCH is very similar to what we have in LTE. A UL grant decoded on PDCCH, is required by the UE to be able to transmit PUSCH. This document does not explain DMRS, aperiodic CSI grants and PUSCH repetitions. We will discuss these topics in detail in another document. This document assumes that the reader has basic knowledge on NR5G slot formats and frame pattern.

In NR-5G, there are 2 DCI formats available for the UE to decode on PDCCH to transmit PUSCH:

  1. DCI format…


In this document we will explore NR5G SSB in detail. We looked into a brief introduction on SSB in NR cell search in previous document CELL SEARCH IN NEW RADIO — 5G.

SSB is transmitted in 4 OFDM symbols across 240 subcarriers and in pre-defined bursts across the time domain on the configured PRBs. The bursts periodicity in terms of time slots depends on which subcarrier spacing numerology is configured.

A UE assumes that reception occasions of a physical broadcast channel (PBCH), Primary Sync Signal(PSS), and Secondary Sync Signal(SSS) are in consecutive symbols and form a SS/PBCH block. The UE…


What is Cloud?

Cloud can be defined as a group of shared physical resources made available to enable consumption of compute and storage capacity primarily on an on-demand basis using internet. The shared resources can be located in multiple locations across the globe to enable accelerated access to the cloud resources like servers, databases, etc. Several service providers like Amazon (AWS), Microsoft, Google, IBM provide cloud services as of date. Currently 90% of cloud market is captured by Amazon Web Services (AWS). In this document we will discuss the basics of AWS cloud computing. …


In this document, we will focus on cell search procedure in New Radio (NR)-5G

Cell search and PBCH :

In NR-5G, Cell search concept is close to what we had in LTE. The UE has to decode Primary Sync Signal and Secondary Sync Signal to decode time slot information and physical cell id. But that is the only similarity. In NR, PSS, SSS and PBCH are transmitted in one block called the Sync Signal Block(s). SSB is transmitted in 4 OFDM symbols across 240 subcarriers and in pre-defined bursts across the time domain on the configured PRBs. The bursts periodicity…


E-UTRA New Radio-Dual Connectivity (EN-DC) is a 3GPP release 15 feature introduced to support New Radio 5G data with existing LTE core and radio networks and without introducing 5G core network. EN -DC can be a useful feature for Heterogeneous networks (HetNets) where LTE provides reliable coverage and NR can be used for improving data rates. EN-DC ensures better system reliability by reducing service interruptions due to higher propagation loss in mmwave or non-line of sight situations in Massive MIMO (beam sweeping)*

Figure [1]

EN-DC Elements

Master Node (LTE):

Master Node or eNB(LTE) in EN-DC is used to access EPC on control plane and…

Prateek Mishra

Exploring how AI can benefit core engineering fields

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